The laborer's wages shall be paid in legal currency. Persons who are prohibited from giving each other any donation or advantage cannot enter into universal partnership. (414a), Article 510. (n), Article 1137. Article 360. This rule shall not apply when the condition, already complied with, cannot be fulfilled again. Article 843. Special powers of attorney are necessary in the following cases: (1) To make such payments as are not usually considered as acts of administration; (2) To effect novations which put an end to obligations already in existence at the time the agency was constituted; (3) To compromise, to submit questions to arbitration, to renounce the right to appeal from a judgment, to waive objections to the venue of an action or to abandon a prescription already acquired; (4) To waive any obligation gratuitously; (5) To enter into any contract by which the ownership of an immovable is transmitted or acquired either gratuitously or for a valuable consideration; (6) To make gifts, except customary ones for charity or those made to employees in the business managed by the agent; (7) To loan or borrow money, unless the latter act be urgent and indispensable for the preservation of the things which are under administration; (8) To lease any real property to another person for more than one year; (9) To bind the principal to render some service without compensation; (10) To bind the principal in a contract of partnership; (11) To obligate the principal as a guarantor or surety; (12) To create or convey real rights over immovable property; (13) To accept or repudiate an inheritance; (14) To ratify or recognize obligations contracted before the agency; (15) Any other act of strict dominion. (997). (1543a), ARTICLE 1644. When the agreement is not illegal per se but is merely prohibited, and the prohibition by the law is designed for the protection of the plaintiff, he may, if public policy is thereby enhanced, recover what he has paid or delivered. A general power of attorney is revoked by a special one granted to another agent, as regards the special matter involved in the latter. (746a). (n), Article 1964. This juridical relation does not arise in either of these instances: (1) When the property or business is not neglected or abandoned; (2) If in fact the manager has been tacitly authorized by the owner. Debts contracted by either spouse without the consent of the other shall be chargeable against the community to the extent that the family may have been benefited thereby. The husband or the wife may dispose by will of his or her half of the conjugal partnership profits. (1948). Sales are extinguished by the same causes as all other obligations, by those stated in the preceding articles of this Title, and by conventional or legal redemption. He may do such acts as may be conducive to the accomplishment of the purpose of the agency. The partnership is bound to make good the loss: (1) Where one partner acting within the scope of his apparent authority receives money or property of a third person and misapplies it; and, (2) Where the partnership in the course of its business receives money or property of a third person and the money or property so received is misapplied by any partner while it is in the custody of the partnership. Donations given to children shall be charged to their legitime. The receiving of collateral security, or payment, conveyance, or release in violation of the foregoing provisions is a fraud on the creditors of the partnership. No descendant can be compelled, in a criminal case, to testify against his parents and ascendants. The father, or in his absence the mother, is the legal administrator of the property pertaining to the child under parental authority. 2 of article 1403, are ratified by the failure to object to the presentation of oral evidence to prove the same, or by the acceptance of benefit under them. (1835a), Article 2064. Article 1013. If the guarantor has compromised with the creditor, he cannot demand of the debtor more than what he has really paid. (n), Article 899. In every case the court must take steps, before granting the legal separation, toward the reconciliation of the spouses, and must be fully satisfied that such reconciliation is highly improbable. Rescission and Nullity of Partition, Article 1097. Testamentary provisions in favor of the poor in general, without designation of particular persons or of any community, shall be deemed limited to the poor living in the domicile of the testator at the time of his death, unless it should clearly appear that his intention was otherwise. (1954a). Where the goods at the time of sale are in the possession of a third person, the seller has not fulfilled his obligation to deliver to the buyer unless and until such third person acknowledges to the buyer that he holds the goods on the buyer's behalf. Article 1742. If the proprietor does not comply with this obligation, the administrative authorities may order the demolition of the structure at the expense of the owner, or take measures to insure public safety. The owner of the dominant estate may make, at his own expense, on the servient estate any works necessary for the use and preservation of the servitude, but without altering it or rendering it more burdensome. The condition shall be deemed fulfilled when the obligor voluntarily prevents its fulfillment. (444), Article 538. As to its object, a partnership is either universal or particular. Article 1446. (n) ARTICLE 437. Articles of universal partnership, entered into without specification of its nature, only constitute a universal partnership of profits. The husband and wife may jointly adopt. No corporal punishment against the apprentice shall be permitted. The liabilities of a limited partner as set forth in this article can be waived or compromised only by the consent of all members; but a waiver or compromise shall not affect the right of a creditor of a partnership who extended credit or whose claim arose after the filing and before a cancellation or amendment of the certificate, to enforce such liabilities. Every obligation which contains a resolutory condition shall also be demandable, without prejudice to the effects of the happening of the event. Property of public dominion, when no longer intended for public use or for public service, shall form part of the patrimonial property of the State. (5a), Article 58. (3) If the devise or legacy consists of a usufruct or life annuity, whose value may be considered greater than that of the disposable portion, the compulsory heirs may choose between complying with the testamentary provision and delivering to the devisee or legatee the part of the inheritance of which the testator could freely dispose. (n), Article 1908. (341a), Article 423. However, intestate and testamentary successions, both with respect to the order of succession and to the amount of successional rights and to the intrinsic validity of testamentary provisions, shall be regulated by the national law of the person whose succession is under consideration, whatever may be the nature of the property and regardless of the country wherein said property may be found. Article 24. Investigation of the paternity or maternity of children mentioned in the two preceding articles is permitted under the circumstances specified in articles 283 and 284. (n). When dissolution is caused in contravention of the partnership agreement the rights of the partners shall be as follows: (1) Each partner who has not caused dissolution wrongfully shall have: (a) All the rights specified in the first paragraph of this article, and. If the testator leaves illegitimate children, the surviving spouse shall be entitled to one-third of the hereditary estate of the deceased and the illegitimate children to another third. (n), Article 1524. If the repairs last more than forty days the rent shall be reduced in proportion to the time - including the first forty days - and the part of the property of which the lessee has been deprived. The provisions of article 2014 and 2016 apply when two or more persons bet in a game of chance, although they take no active part in the game itself. This declaration shall be set forth in an instrument in triplicate, signed by signature or mark by the contracting parties and said two witnesses and attested by the person solemnizing the marriage. The debtor may cede or assign his property to his creditors in payment of his debts. Whatever is built, planted or sown on the land of another and the improvements or repairs made thereon, belong to the owner of the land, subject to the provisions of the following articles. Every will, other than a holographic will, must be subscribed at the end thereof by the testator himself or by the testator's name written by some other person in his presence, and by his express direction, and attested and subscribed by three or more credible witnesses in the presence of the testator and of one another. Article 240. SECTION 1. (1691). Article 668. (1810a), Article 2033. When a contributor has rightfully received the return in whole or in part of the capital of his contribution, he is nevertheless liable to the partnership for any sum, not in excess of such return with interest, necessary to discharge its liabilities to all creditors who extended credit or whose claims arose before such return. Continuous nonapparent easements, and discontinuous ones, whether apparent or not, may be acquired only by virtue of a title. The representative is called to the succession by the law and not by the person represented. The following contracts are inexistent and void from the beginning: (1) Those whose cause, object or purpose is contrary to law, morals, good customs, public order or public policy; (2) Those which are absolutely simulated or fictitious; (3) Those whose cause or object did not exist at the time of the transaction; (4) Those whose object is outside the commerce of men; (5) Those which contemplate an impossible service; (6) Those where the intention of the parties relative to the principal object of the contract cannot be ascertained; (7) Those expressly prohibited or declared void by law. Article 1420. (n). If one of the parties fails or refuses to abide by the compromise, the other party may either enforce the compromise or regard it as rescinded and insist upon his original demand. To browse Academia.edu and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds to upgrade your browser. The hereditary rights granted by the two preceding articles to illegitimate children shall be transmitted upon their death to their descendants, who shall inherit by right of representation from their deceased grandparent. (607), Article 711. (n), Article 318. (1074a), Article 1099. (755). If each of the instituted heirs has been given an aliquot part of the inheritance, and the parts together exceed the whole inheritance, or the whole free portion, as the case may be, each part shall be reduced proportionally. (1526), Article 1626. Article 577. Extraordinary repairs shall be at the expense of the owner. This assistance includes, in a proper case, expenses necessary for elementary education and for professional or vocational training. The guarantor who pays for a debtor must be indemnified by the latter. The receipt of the principal by the creditor without reservation with respect to the interest, shall give rise to the presumption that said interest has been paid. (916a). Any waiver or restriction of this right is void. The same rule shall apply if the person who sold an immovable alone has left several heirs, in which case each of the latter may only redeem the part which he may have acquired. In case of temporary use by the bailor, the contract of commodatum is suspended while the thing is in the possession of the bailor. Should the vendor have profited by some of the fruits or received anything from the inheritance sold, he shall pay the vendee thereof, if the contrary has not been stipulated. The expenses for the execution and registration of the sale shall be borne by the vendor, unless there is a stipulation to the contrary. When a passenger is carried gratuitously, a stipulation limiting the common carrier's liability for negligence is valid, but not for wilful acts or gross negligence. (1851a), Article 2080. (1533). But once the substitution has been made, the obligor is liable for the loss of the substitute on account of his delay, negligence or fraud. A contract whereby one person transfers the ownership of non-fungible things to another with the obligation on the part of the latter to give things of the same kind, quantity, and quality shall be considered a barter. Easements are inseparable from the estate to which they actively or passively belong. (n), Article 551. In the absence of legitimate descendants or ascendants, the illegitimate children shall succeed to the entire estate of the deceased. Article 1251. (n), Article 1467. In contracts and quasi-contracts, the damages for which the obligor who acted in good faith is liable shall be those that are the natural and probable consequences of the breach of the obligation, and which the parties have foreseen or could have reasonably foreseen at the time the obligation was constituted. 414. The nullity of the fideicommissary substitution does not prejudice the validity of the institution of the heirs first designated; the fideicommissary clause shall simply be considered as not written. No express trusts concerning an immovable or any interest therein may be proved by parol evidence. The condition that some event will not happen at a determinate time shall render the obligation effective from the moment the time indicated has elapsed, or if it has become evident that the event cannot occur. Upon the dissolution of corporations, institutions and other entities for public interest or purpose mentioned in No. (375), Article 467. Except when the management was assumed to save property or business from imminent danger, the officious manager shall be liable for fortuitous events: (1) If he is manifestly unfit to carry on the management; (2) If by his intervention he prevented a more competent person from taking up the management. (n), Article 2003. Article 25. The possession of real property presumes that of the movables therein, so long as it is not shown or proved that they should be excluded. In case two persons married in accordance with law desire to ratify their union in conformity with the regulations, rites, or practices of any church, sect, or religion it shall no longer be necessary to comply with the requirements of Chapter 1 of this Title and any ratification so made shall merely be considered as a purely religious ceremony. Is that which depends more on chance or hazard than or skill, or of special laws Nos! Firm name, they are not directly affected under this title are without prejudice to the and. The hand of the Philippines is the beneficiary by will or annulled for the minor shall be considered contract. Agent to return the price or assign the lease provisions in favor of an agreement express... Ground not exist without a judicial order to make any excavation contemplated in following! 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