The theory states that the planets were formed by the accumulation of extremely small bits of matter planetesimals that revolved around the sun. • The early atmosphere largely contained water vapour, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, ammonia and very little of free oxygen. Also, the origin of many phenomena like earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunami etc are linked with the structure of earth's interior. The Big Bang theory attempts to explain to us the origin of universe. It is also called expanding universe hypothesis. The earth’s oceans were formed within 500 million years from the formation of the earth. As time passes, galaxies move further and further apart. It is an alternative to the Big Bang model of the evolution of the universe. Due to gravitational pull a gaseous tide was raised on the surface of the sun. The nebula from which our Solar system is supposed to have been formed, started its collapse and core formation some time 5-5.6 billion years ago and the planets were formed about 4.6 billion years ago. ORIGIN OF EARTH: Theory; Classification a) Hot Origin/Cold Origin b) Monistic/Dualistic /Binary Star/Trihybrid Theory Name Ã¯Â¿Â½ Profounder Name Ã¯Â¿Â½Match List Basic Concept of Theories Profounder Ã¯Â¿Â½s Quotation if any GEOLOGICAL TIME SCALE Terms _ Era. (iii) In the final stage, these large number of small planetesimals accrete to form a fewer large bodies in the form of planets. (1999) With reference to the theory of Plate tectonics, explain the origin and growth of the Young Fold Mountain systems of the World. The Origin Of The Earth According To Laplace: Based on aforesaid assumptions Laplace maintained that there was a hot and rotating huge gaseous Nebula in the space.There was gradual loss of heat from the outer surface of the Nebula through radiation due … From the crust to the core, the density of the material increases. The binary numeral system – where each position is written as a 0 or 1 – forms the foundation of all modern computing systems. During the cooling of the earth, gases and water vapour were released from the interior solid earth. Thereafter, the expansion has slowed down. Jovian planets were formed at quite a distant location. The microscopic structures closely related to the present form of blue algae have been found in geological formations much older than some 3,000 million years. From the outermost end of the atmosphere to the centre of the earth, the material that exists is not uniform. According to this hypothesis, the planets were moulded out of a cloud of material associated with a young Sun, which was rotating slowly. Jeans and Jeffrey proposed the theory in 1925; Large star came near the sun. Watch Video Lecture on YouTube: 7 Theories of Origin of Earth - Part - 2. Which of the following are correctly matched? In 1796, a mathematician Pierre-Simon Laplace reexamined it. It states that at some moment all of space was contained in a single point of very high-density and high-temperature state from which the universe has been expanding in all directions ever since. Continue your investigation of the moon’s origin. It is also called expanding universe hypothesis. Bring out the distinctions between the continental drift theory and the plate tectonics theory. Ac… It is known as Nebular Hypothesis. ; Modern measurements place this moment at approximately 13.8 billion years ago. The atmospheric condition after the explosion became more stable. 7 Theories of Origin of Earth - Part - 2 . Also, the origin of many phenomena like earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunami etc are linked with the structure of earth's interior. He presented several physiographic evidences in support of subsidence theory and to explain hither to unsolved several problems related to the formation of coral reefs. Origin of earth 1. The Story of Earth; The Evolution and Complete Timeline of Life on Earth. Edwin Hubble, in 1920, provided evidence that the universe is expanding. Finally, the composition of the atmosphere was modified by the living world through the process of photosynthesis. To remove the shortcomings of tidal hypothesis of sir James Jeans. The chemistry of meteorites and Sun provide constraints on the composition of the bulk of the Earth. It is through the process of differentiation that the earth forming material got separated into different layers. This happened not only in case of the earth, but also in all the terrestrial planets, which were supposed to have lost their primordial atmosphere through the impact of solar winds. As the passing star moved away, the material separated from the solar surface continued to revolve around the sun and it slowly condensed into planets. This later led to the development of the outer surface in the form of a crust. The atmospheric matter has the least density. Bring out the distinctions between the continental drift theory and the plate tectonics theory. Our solar system consists of the sun (the star), 8 planets, 63 moons, millions of smaller bodies like asteroids and comets and huge quantity of dust-grains and gases. The simplest theory that explains the evidence is the “big thwack” model. UPSC Civil Services Examination UPSC Notes [GS-I] Topic: Earth - Origin & Evolution [Geography Notes for UPSC] The origin and evolution of the earth Early Theories Nebular Hypothesis Immanuel Kant, a German philosopher gave this theory. So, the balloon example is only partially correct. H.N. The Big Bang theory attempts to explain to us the origin of universe. Eventually, oceans were saturated with oxygen, and 2,000 million years ago, oxygen began to flood the atmosphere. Jan 11,2021 - Test: The Origin And Evolution Of The Earth | 10 Questions MCQ Test has questions of UPSC preparation. Origin of the Earth: A large number of hypotheses were put forth by different philosophers and scientists regarding the origin of the earth. Image of Binary Star Hypothesis - Russell. The theory failed to explain how the planetesimals had become one planet; Gaseous Tidal Theory. The universe is very old – almost 13 billion years old. This portion of blasted material then continued to orbit the earth and eventually formed into the present moon about 4.44 billion years ago. Hence, there must have been some events– processes, which may have caused this change from rocky, barren and hot earth to a beautiful planet with ample amount of water and conducive atmosphere favouring the existence of life. Gaseous Hypothesis of Kant: . At this instant, matter, energy, space and time were not existent. Earth is part of the solar system. In the second stage, the hot interior of the earth contributed to the evolution of the atmosphere. This model explains that the crustal origin of the Earth was due to its internal processes. The great issue facing the binary theory today is, well, the absence of an obvious candidate for the part. Now, if you start inflating the balloon, the points marked on the balloon will appear to be moving away from each other as the balloon expands. Russel . A. I. Oparin (1894-1980) was a Russian Scientist. Oceans began to have the contribution of oxygen through the process of photosynthesis. With little to no oxygen, there was not a protective ozone layer around the Earth like we have now. This allowed heavier materials (like iron) to sink towards the centre of the earth and the lighter ones to move towards the surface. The record of life that existed on this planet in different periods is found in rocks in the form of fossils. These initial density differences gave rise to differences in gravitational forces and it caused the matter to get drawn together. These formed the bases for development of galaxies. However, in a meeting of the International Astronomical Union, a decision was taken that Pluto like other celestial objects (2003 UB313)discovered in recent past may be called ‘dwarf planet’. The first stage is marked by the loss of primordial atmosphere. The earth has a layered structure. The Big Bang Theory considers the following stages in the development of the universe. Out of the eight planets, mercury, venus, earth and mars are called as the inner planets as they lie between the sun and the belt of asteroids the other four planets are called the outer planets. Nova Hypothesis: The sun had another companion star which was much bigger than the sun, and the two together constituted a binary system. The present composition of earth’s atmosphere is chiefly contributed by nitrogen and oxygen. These notes will also be useful for other competitive exams like banking PO, SSC, state civil services exams and so on. The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the birth of the universe. (iii) Within 300,000 years from the Big Bang, temperature dropped to 4,500 K (Kelvin) and gave rise to atomic matter. Image of Otto Schmidt's Inter-Stellar Dust Cloud Hypothesis. Huge clusters of galaxies comprise the universe. Eventually, growing nebula develops localised clumps of gas. 1. As the star came nearer, the tide increased in size. Oparin-Haldane theory is also called chemical theory or naturalistic theory. (2000) Present a critical analysis of the theory of Isostacy. The rainwater falling onto the surface got collected in the depressions to give rise to oceans. Nebular Hypothesis: • Proposed by German philosopher Immanuel Kant and revised by Laplace in 1796. 7 Theories of Origin of Earth – Part – 2 YouTube Lecture Handouts. In 1838, Sir George Darwin suggested that initially, the earth and the moon formed a single rapidly rotating body. Till recently (August 2006), Pluto was also considered a planet. Continuous volcanic eruptions contributed water vapour and gaseso the atmosphere. Particles began to collide against each other under their mutual gravitational attractions. Phase equilibrium in igneous systems : Binary and ternary systems. Early earth and theories on the origins magic isotope of the origin q8 fill in the blank most origin of ning of life biology for everybody ppt theories on the origin of Origin Of Earth Iasmania Civil Services PreparationWhat Are Some Theories That Explain The Origin Of Earth QuoraExperiments Call Origin Of Earth S Iron… Read More » All the planets were formedin the same period sometime about 4.6 billion years ago. Origin of Earth. The Human Origin Project. Origin and Evolution of Earth Research Questions for a Changing Planet Questions about the origins and nature of Earth have long preoccupied human thought and the scientific endeavor. The whole mas became a dumb-bell-shaped body and eventually it broke. The study of landforms, their processes, form, and sediments at the surface of the Earth (and sometimes on other planets) is known as Geomorphology. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. Planetesimals are a large number of smaller bodies. In 1950, Otto Schmidt in Russia and Carl Weizascar in Germany somewhat revised the ‘nebular hypothesis’. 17 The “Big Six” Elements of Early Earth. It is undoubtedly clear that initially the earth or even the atmosphere of the earth was not conducive for the development of life. As it grew, some energy was converted into matter. Nebula – It is a primordial (primitive) amorphous (without shape) mass of cloud of gas and dust. The last phase in the evolution of the earth relates to the origin and evolution of life. Origin of the Earth: A large number of hypotheses were put forth by different philosophers and scientists regarding the origin of the earth. (ii) In the next stage, the gas cloud starts getting condensed and the matter around the core develops into smallrounded objects. However, the present scientists do not accept either of the explanations. However, you will find that besides the increase in the distances between the points on the balloon, the points themselves are expanding. 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