The first Hydro-Electrical power plant in India was built in Darjeeling. In 1839 Dr. Archibald Campbell, a British resident in Nepal was brought in as Superintendent of Darjeeling. After the independence of India in 1947, Darjeeling was merged with the state of West Bengal. The town continued to grow as a tourist destination, becoming known as the "Queen of the Hills". Darjeeling Tea from Goomtee, is processed in the traditional “Orthodox” way - breed and harvested at an altitude of over 4500 ft combined with excellent harvesting methods, this has ensured quality of pure china tea leaf. The rise in tourism also affected the ecological balance of the area. The country was still practically uninhabited ... About 10 years previously 1,200 able-bodied Lepchas, forming, according to Captain Herbert, two-thirds of the population of Sikkim, had been forced by the oppression of the Raja to fly from Darjeeling and its neighbourhood, and to take refuge in Nepal. Narendra Modi gifted Queen Elizabeth II a set of memorable photographs, special Darjeeling tea, and honey from Jammu and Kashmir as the British monarch hosted a luncheon banquet in his honour. In 1835, the hill of Darjeeling, including an enclave of 138 square miles (360 km 2), was gifted to the British East India Company by Sikkim. Here there is a World War I Gattling Cannon gifted to the club by Col. Younghusband before he left Darjeeling, leading the first British expedition to Tibet. During his stay Captain Lloyd realized the potential of the place to become a great sanitarium (or a health resort). The town did not see any significant political activity during the freedom struggle of India owing to its remote location and small population. In November 1864, the Treaty of Sinchula was executed in which the Bhutan Dooars with the passes leading into the hills and Kalimpong were ceded to the British by Bhutan . Bentinck agreed to acquire the hill tract as a military outpost and sanatorium, acknowledging that it also offered strategic advantages as a military outpost and trading hub. Bolot was the maternal uncle to Tsugphud Namgyal and his assassination was carried out by 'Lhachos' identified by Maharaja's history as the father of 'Cheebu Lama'. This event was known as the Kotapa insurrection which was eventually suppressed through British East India Company's assistance. After the Anglo-Gorkha War, Nepal ceded one-third of it territories to the British under the 1816 Sugauli Treaty, which included the land area between the Mechi and Teesta Rivers. The Darjeeling district can be said to have assumed its present shape and size in 1866 with an … But it didn't happen overnight. By 1835 it had become a British sanatorium after the King of Sikkim had gifted it to Governor General Bentink of friendship. A separate district of Darjeeling was established consisting of the hilly towns of Darjeeling, Kurseong, Kalimpong and the Terai areas of Siliguri. In 1817, it was gifted to the British East India Company by the king of Sikkim. The relationship soured so much that in November 1849, Dr. Campbell and Sir Joseph Hooker who were travelling in Sikkim, were arrested and made prisoners. A road connecting Darjeeling with the plains was con. However, there was a failed assassination attempt by revolutionaries on Sir John Anderson, the Governor of Bengal in the 1930s. However, there was no necessity for bloodshed and after the Company's troops had crossed the Rangeet River into Sikkim, hostilities ceased. Number of schools came up in Darjeeling town, Kurseong and Kalimpong. Annexation into the British Indian Empire, Bengal District Gazetteer By L.S.S O' Malley, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=History_of_Darjeeling&oldid=988557501, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Khawas, Vimal (2003). Darjeeling also became a center for European education. Bolot's nephews, the sons of Kotaba Kungha named Dathup, Jerung Denon and Kazi Gorok left Sikkim taking with them 800 houses of Lepcha subjects from Chidam and Namthang and went to Ilam in Nepal where their descendants still reside to this day. He was in his 80s. With the opening of the Darjeeling Himalayan Railway in 1881, smooth communication between the town and the plains below further increased the development of the region. Later, the Maharaja of Sikkim gifted Darjeeling to the British. The court of Directors of the British East India Company approved the project. From 1862 to 1870, it was considered a "Regulated Area". This has been called the queen of hill-stations. After this, conflicts started taking serious shape. This hill station gained popularity during the mid-nineteenth century when the British set up a retreat and a military base in Darjeeling. After it was gifted to the British Indian government in 1835, Archibald Campbell, who had served in Nepal (1830-38) as a surgeon to the residency in … The relation deteriorated to such an extent that when Dr. Campbell and the eminent explorer Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker were touring in Sikkim in 1849, they were suddenly captured and imprisoned. The British became interested in Darjeeling both as a hill resort and an outpost from where Tibet and Sikkim would be easily accessible. Dr. Campbell is known to be the person largely responsible for the initial development of Darjeeling. The etymology of the place comes from Dorjeling meaning 'land of thunder.' However in 1865 a treaty was signed between the British and the Bhutanese which allowed possession of Kalimpong by the British in return of an annual subsidy. And over the next 30years, the Gorkhas kept on conquering areas towards east as far as Teesta river bank and even captured the Terai area (i.e. Darjeeling is the home of many mixed immigrants from Bhutan, Sikkim, and Nepal. Steady flow of fund was invested to build roads in the mountains. It was during this period Captain Lloyd spent few days in February 1829 in Darjeeling. In the provisions of 1935 Act of Government of India, Darjeeling hill area was declared as the 'Partially excluded area' and therefore one seat was allotted for a member to be elected for the Provincial Legislature of Bengal. Finally Darjeeling was on its way for rapid development with more certainty. The king signed a deed which stated that Darjeeling was given as a gift to East India Company as a friendly gesture, and in return the company granted an annual allowance of Rs. Having lost the war, the King of Nepal was forced to sign the Treaty of Sugauli with the British on 2nd December 1815 (which was later ratified on 4th March 1816). By 1835 it had become a British sanatorium after the King of Sikkim had gifted it to Governor General Bentink of friendship. Previously a part of Sikkim, Darjeeling was given to the East India Company as a gift from the king of Sikkim in the year 1835. Before this, Darjeeling was the ancient Gorkha capital. in 1827) again a dispute arose between Sikkim and Nepal, which was then referred to the British Governor General as per the terms of the treaty. During this time, immigrants, mainly from Nepal, were recruited to work in the construction sites, tea gardens, and other agriculture-related projects. T h e British exited an independent India in 1947 but left behind personality traits and hobbies that have intermingled with the Indian culture and tradition. All negotiations and talks failed. Migration of the Lepchas to Nepal took place after the assassination of Sikkimese Prime Minister Bolot, of the influential Lepcha Barfung clan. In 1835, a member of the Indian Medical Service, Archibald Campbell, was appointed as agent of the leased tract, and Lieutenant Napier (later Lord Napier of Magdala) set to work improving the area and laying the foundations of the hill station of Darjeeling. Later, the Maharaja of Sikkim gifted Darjeeling to the British. Monsoon is at its peak during the month of July, the month when rainfall is the highest. What little cultivation there was, had been abandoned.". Two Britons, Dr. Archibald Campbell and Dr. … First the annual allowance of Rs. It is said that it was formerly a place of worship of the Rongs where three stone stand erect (Lung-Chok) till today. The British, using the area as a sanitorium, found that the climate provided excellent tea-cultivating conditions and soon began to grow tea on the hills of Darjeeling. Over the years Darjeeling has gone through several other elections like assembly elections as well as local elections that included municipality, panchayat, erstwhile Darjeeling Gorkha Hill Council (DGHC), Gorkhaland Territorial Administration (GTA) etc. He retired and handed over the administration to Dewan Namguay (the person responsible for the arrest of Dr. Campbell). Since 1866, peace was established in Darjeeling which paved the way for all round development in the hills. Darjeeling has been created by merging parts of Bhutan and Sikkim with India. Gifted to the British East India Company in 1817, Darjeeling is the hill station of West Bengal. This has been called the queen of hill-stations. Under this treaty, Nepal had to concede some of its captured territory to the British including the Kingdom of Sikkim & Darjeeling. It is noted for its tea industry, its views of Kangchenjunga, the world's third-highest mountain, and the Darjeeling Himalayan Railway, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Soon afterwards the popular hills station became a sort of reprise for the British who wanted to escape from the assaulting heat of the plains in Summer. The third major development in agriculture was the introduction of new crops like the cinchona, orange, cardamom, potatoes and most importantly the. The Indian Prime Minister gifted the British queen tea from Darjeeling's Makaibari estate, the only hill garden never owned "by the components of the Raj", according to the manufacturer. From here they conducted raids on Darjeeling and Sikkim Terai. Having lost the war, the King of Nepal was forced to sign the, 10 years later (i.e. In 1866, Kalimpong too was transferred to the district of Darjeeling. An expeditionary force was sent by the Company to Sikkim. Apparently, Lt. General Lloyd identified the potential of … miles. Understanding the Demand for Self-Rule in the Darjeeling Hills. Sir Ashley Eden and Colonel Gawler led a force of 2600 men equipped with artillery, triumphed and entered the capital of Sikkim (then Tumlong) in March 1861. Following a lot of pressure from the British, Sikkim finally gifted Darjeeling to British India on the understanding that a certain amount would be … It's another matter that such power system was never developed for any use other than catering to Darjeeling's own local requirements. Sikkim covered twice the area as large as it is now but the size was reduced due to annexations by neighbouring powers and in 1935 the hill area of Darjeeling was ‘Presented’ to the British out of Friendship. And so they created the Lloyd Botanical Garden in Darjeeling, which offers a protected habitat for many species of Himalayan trees and plants.The Garden is open from 6 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily, except for the main conservatory which is closed on Sundays. Darjeeling was gifted to British India in 1835. In the 18th century Sikkim faced many Ghurkha incursions, the impact of these invasions resulted in Sikkim turning on the British side during the Anglo-Nepalese War of 1815-1816 AD. The issue of a separate state still agitated in between with a new political party Gorkha Janmukti Morcha demanding for separate state . Soon afterwards the popular hills station became a sort of reprise for the British who wanted to escape from the assaulting heat of the plains in Summer. This allowance was subsequently increased to Rs. Darjeeling Tea, tea from the district of Darjeeling, high in the foothills of the Indian Himalayas is universally acknowledged to be among the world’s finest teas. 3,000 to the king. By the 1860s, peace was restored in the borders. Before this, Darjeeling was the ancient Gorkha capital. However in the second parliamentary election in 1957, Darjeeling district was considered as a separate constituency and a single lok sabha seat was allocated for it. The population of Darjeeling rose by leaps and bounds. Later, the Maharaja of Sikkim gifted Darjeeling to the British. Henry Lennox, a British pioneer, was the first to start planting teas in this garden back in 1899. So, where is the question of returning anything back to Nepal which did illegally occupy parts of Sikkim for few decades before being chased out by the British? Consequent to this trouble, and further misconduct on the part of the Sikkim authorities a few years later, the mountain tracts now forming the district of Darjeeling became a part of the British Indian Empire, and the remainder of kingdom of Sikkim became a protected state. The British then decided to capture another core part of Sikkim. Two Britons, Dr. Archibald Campbell and Dr. Joseph Dalton Hooker were captured by the Sikkimese in 1849. Dewan Namguay fled, the son of king was enthroned on 28th March and a treaty was signed which finally ended all cross border troubles. Because of the increased importance of Darjeeling, many citizens of Sikkim, mostly of the labour class, started to settle in Darjeeling as British subjects. The new party accepted the GTA (Gorkha Territorial Administration) after certain years from both the center and the state Government of West Bengal which it believes that the demarcation of land including the Tarai and Doors with Darjeeling and Kalimpong district are formed for better administrative purpose . There is a long history associated with Darjeeling and its development. Second, some part of the Sikkim was taken over and the Terai (i.e. Tea estates continued to grow. Darjeeling is one of India's most famous hill resorts. The colonial town of Darjeeling was designed for a population of only 10,000. In agriculture, three areas saw significant development. Darjeeling, Nov. 15: Unwittingly or otherwise, Narendra Modi has given Queen Elizabeth a gift with a Swadeshi message. Darjeeling tea remains a world-renowned export from Darjeeling. It was the British who first realized that the place could be turned into a health resort or a sanitarium.